Microphone Polar Patterns...
Microphone Polar Patterns
|0 degrees is straight in front of the microphone, 180 degrees is directly behind the microphone|
This encompasses a field of all directions, or nondirectional. In theory it should be a perfect sphere but because the microphone its self is not infinitely small it gets in its own way, just like if it was on a person's body. So the smaller the body the better the polar pattern. The wave length of 10Khz is 3.4cm so small microphones are effective at even high frequencies.
This is the most common unidirectional microphone. There is a dip at the back due to the microphone casing and the direction of the diaphragm. A Sub cardioid is similar to the omnidirectional polar pattern but flatter. and Super and Hyper cardioid have tighter patterns compared to the basic cardioid pattern, but they add more sensitivity to the cardioid because of their higher sensitivity.
These are the highest directional microphones. They have small fields of sensitivity to the left, right and rear. This is still significantly smaller than other directional microphones. This is the most common on film sets for booming over subjects.